2023 is confirmed as the warmest year ever recorded

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ANDIn its annual global report, the European space and climate data agency Copernicus confirms that temperatures without precedents Since the month of June, they have led 2023 to surpass 2016 as the warmest year.

For twelve months new daily and monthly highs were recorded.

The data exposes the increase in global surface temperatures relative to pre-industrial levels. It shows that daily averages exceeded those levels by more than 2°C at certain times of the year.

2023 has replaced 2016 as the warmest calendar year on record. According to the ERA5 data set, the global mean temperature for 2023 was 14.98 °C, 0.17 °C higher than that recorded in 2016. The year-on-year increase in global mean temperature was exceptionally large from 2022 to 2023.

fig1 GCH2023 surface temperature monthly anomalies global stacked 1940 2023
Monthly global surface air temperature anomalies, relative to 1991-2020 from January 1940 to December 2023, represented as time series for each year.

The climate trend towards the 1.5 °C and 2 °C limits set in the Paris Agreement It is usually analyzed in relation to temperatures averaged on a global scale and for each year of one or several decades. However, observational data sets whose coverage includes the reference period 1850-1900 have a monthly resolution, allowingand make estimates of the annual variation in warming from 1850-1900 to the recent period. This provides a basis for monitoring the accumulation of daily exceedances of warming limits using reanalysis data sets such as ERA5.

fig3a GCH2023 daily global temperature increase above preindustrial 2023

Using ERA5, this trace shows that Every day in 2023 had global temperatures more than 1°C higher than the 1850-1900 level for that period of the year. Two days were more than 2ºC warmer than in 1850-1900, the first time the 2ºC level has been exceeded. About 50% of the days in 2023 were more than 1.5°C warmer than those in 1850-1900. This was the case for just over 20% days in 2016, the hottest year previously recorded. The earliest period in ERA5 with successively daily temperatures at least 1.5°C higher than 1850-1900 is December 2–15, 2015.

The distribution of surface air temperature anomalies across the planet in 2023 shows a marked contrast with that of 2022. Almost all land areas experienced above-average temperatures in 2023. Annual temperatures were more than 1°C higher than the 1991-2020 average in much of Europe and North America, and in several other regions.

Marine air temperatures were also the warmest on record in several regions in 2023. This is the case for much of the North Atlantic and Caribbean, the northern, tropical and southern Pacific, and parts of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans . Air temperature anomalies in these and other regions are closely linked to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies.

fig4 GCH2023 PR surface temperature anomaly regional contributions

Around the world, the extreme impact was evident with extensive forest fires and extensive heat waves, which may have been intensified by the climate phenomenon of The boy.

Temperatures in Europe were above average for eleven months of the year.

In 2023 the warmest september never recorded.

He report It also extrapolates that a 12-month period ending in January or February 2024 would exceed the level of global temperature rise of 1.5 degrees Celsius that the UN says will would trigger irreversible climate change.